技術情報

【Linux】コマンドでパケットキャプチャを採取(tcpdump)

こんにちは、Linux 初心者 ばにゃです。

本記事では Linux 環境で tcpdump コマンドを使用したパケットキャプチャの採取方法を解説します。

Windows 環境でのパケットキャプチャに関しては以下の記事を参考にしてください。

スポンサーリンク

前提となる環境

本記事では、以下のような環境を例として記載します。
この環境で私自身が実機動作確認済みの手順となります。

環境
  • CentOS 7.5

tcpdump コマンドの使い方

オプション/フィルター無しで普通に実行する場合

tcpdump

オプション / フィルターの使用方法

出力先ファイルを指定 (-w)

ファイルに出力する場合

tcpdump -w <出力ファイル名>

ホストによるフィルター(host)

送信先もしくは送信元のホスト <IPアドレス> を指定

tcpdump host <IPアドレス>

送信先のホスト<IPアドレス>を指定

tcpdump dst host <IPアドレス>

送信元のホスト<IPアドレス>を指定

tcpdump src host <IPアドレス>

ポート番号によるフィルター(port)

送信先もしくは送信元の <ポート番号> を指定

tcpdump port <ポート番号>

送信先の <ポート番号> を指定

tcpdump dst port <ポート番号>

送信元の <ポート番号> を指定

tcpdump src port <ポート番号>

複数のフィルターを組み合わせる方法(and / or)

and でつなげる

host と port を組み合わせてフィルターする場合

tcpdump host <IPアドレス> and port <ポート番号>

実行例
ホスト 192.168.100.1 とポート番号 443 でフィルターをかける場合

tcpdump host 192.168.100.1 and port 443

or でつなげる

複数の host を指定してフィルターする場合

tcpdump host <IPアドレス> or <IPアドレス> 

実行例
ホスト 192.168.100.1 と192.168.100.2 でフィルターをかける場合

tcpdump host 192.168.100.1 or 192.168.100.2

マニュアル

man tcpdump コマンドを実行して表示されるマニュアルを参考までに記載しておきます。

TCPDUMP(8)                                                     System Manager's Manual                                                    TCPDUMP(8)



NAME
       tcpdump - dump traffic on a network

SYNOPSIS
       tcpdump [ -AbdDefhHIJKlLnNOpqStuUvxX# ] [ -B buffer_size ]
               [ -c count ]
               [ -C file_size ] [ -G rotate_seconds ] [ -F file ]
               [ -i interface ] [ -j tstamp_type ] [ -m module ] [ -M secret ]
               [ --number ] [ -Q|-P in|out|inout ]
               [ -r file ] [ -V file ] [ -s snaplen ] [ -T type ] [ -w file ]
               [ -W filecount ]
               [ -E spi@ipaddr algo:secret,...  ]
               [ -y datalinktype ] [ -z postrotate-command ] [ -Z user ]
               [ --time-stamp-precision=tstamp_precision ]
               [ --immediate-mode ] [ --version ]
               [ expression ]

DESCRIPTION
       Tcpdump prints out a description of the contents of packets on a network interface that match the boolean expression; the description is pre‐
       ceded by a time stamp, printed, by default, as hours, minutes, seconds, and fractions of a second since midnight.  It can also  be  run  with
       the  -w  flag,  which causes it to save the packet data to a file for later analysis, and/or with the -r flag, which causes it to read from a
       saved packet file rather than to read packets from a network interface.  It can also be run with the -V flag, which causes it to read a  list
       of saved packet files. In all cases, only packets that match expression will be processed by tcpdump.

       Tcpdump  will, if not run with the -c flag, continue capturing packets until it is interrupted by a SIGINT signal (generated, for example, by
       typing your interrupt character, typically control-C) or a SIGTERM signal (typically generated with the kill(1) command); if run with the  -c
       flag, it will capture packets until it is interrupted by a SIGINT or SIGTERM signal or the specified number of packets have been processed.

       When tcpdump finishes capturing packets, it will report counts of:

              packets ``captured'' (this is the number of packets that tcpdump has received and processed);

              packets  ``received by filter'' (the meaning of this depends on the OS on which you're running tcpdump, and possibly on the way the OS
              was configured - if a filter was specified on the command line, on some OSes it counts packets regardless of whether they were matched
              by the filter expression and, even if they were matched by the filter expression, regardless of whether tcpdump has read and processed
              them yet, on other OSes it counts only packets that were matched by the filter expression regardless of whether tcpdump has  read  and
              processed  them  yet,  and  on other OSes it counts only packets that were matched by the filter expression and were processed by tcp‐
              dump);

              packets ``dropped by kernel'' (this is the number of packets that were dropped, due to a lack of buffer space, by the  packet  capture
              mechanism  in  the  OS on which tcpdump is running, if the OS reports that information to applications; if not, it will be reported as
              0).

       On platforms that support the SIGINFO signal, such as most BSDs (including Mac OS X) and Digital/Tru64 UNIX, it will report those counts when
       it  receives  a SIGINFO signal (generated, for example, by typing your ``status'' character, typically control-T, although on some platforms,
       such as Mac OS X, the ``status'' character is not set by default, so you must set it with stty(1) in order to use it) and will continue  cap‐
       turing packets. On platforms that do not support the SIGINFO signal, the same can be achieved by using the SIGUSR1 signal.

       Reading  packets from a network interface may require that you have special privileges; see the pcap (3PCAP) man page for details.  Reading a
       saved packet file doesn't require special privileges.

OPTIONS
       -A     Print each packet (minus its link level header) in ASCII.  Handy for capturing web pages.

       -b     Print the AS number in BGP packets in ASDOT notation rather than ASPLAIN notation.

       -B buffer_size
       --buffer-size=buffer_size
              Set the operating system capture buffer size to buffer_size, in units of KiB (1024 bytes).

       -c count
              Exit after receiving count packets.

       -C file_size
              Before writing a raw packet to a savefile, check whether the file is currently larger than file_size and, if  so,  close  the  current
              savefile  and  open  a new one.  Savefiles after the first savefile will have the name specified with the -w flag, with a number after
              it, starting at 1 and continuing upward.  The units of file_size are millions of bytes (1,000,000 bytes, not 1,048,576 bytes).

       -d     Dump the compiled packet-matching code in a human readable form to standard output and stop.

       -dd    Dump packet-matching code as a C program fragment.

       -ddd   Dump packet-matching code as decimal numbers (preceded with a count).

       -D
       --list-interfaces
              Print the list of the network interfaces available on the system and on which tcpdump can capture packets.  For  each  network  inter‐
              face, a number and an interface name, possibly followed by a text description of the interface, is printed.  The interface name or the
              number can be supplied to the -i flag to specify an interface on which to capture.

              This can be useful on systems that don't have a command to list them (e.g., Windows systems, or UNIX systems lacking ifconfig -a); the
              number can be useful on Windows 2000 and later systems, where the interface name is a somewhat complex string.

              The -D flag will not be supported if tcpdump was built with an older version of libpcap that lacks the pcap_findalldevs() function.

       -e     Print the link-level header on each dump line.  This can be used, for example, to print MAC layer addresses for protocols such as Eth‐
              ernet and IEEE 802.11.

       -E     Use spi@ipaddr algo:secret for decrypting IPsec ESP packets that are addressed to addr and contain Security Parameter Index value spi.
              This combination may be repeated with comma or newline separation.

              Note that setting the secret for IPv4 ESP packets is supported at this time.

              Algorithms  may  be  des-cbc,  3des-cbc, blowfish-cbc, rc3-cbc, cast128-cbc, or none.  The default is des-cbc.  The ability to decrypt
              packets is only present if tcpdump was compiled with cryptography enabled.

              secret is the ASCII text for ESP secret key.  If preceded by 0x, then a hex value will be read.

              The option assumes RFC2406 ESP, not RFC1827 ESP.  The option is only for debugging purposes, and the use of this option  with  a  true
              `secret'  key  is  discouraged.   By  presenting IPsec secret key onto command line you make it visible to others, via ps(1) and other
              occasions.

              In addition to the above syntax, the syntax file name may be used to have tcpdump read the provided file in. The file is  opened  upon
              receiving the first ESP packet, so any special permissions that tcpdump may have been given should already have been given up.

       -f     Print  `foreign'  IPv4  addresses  numerically rather than symbolically (this option is intended to get around serious brain damage in
              Sun's NIS server — usually it hangs forever translating non-local internet numbers).

              The test for `foreign' IPv4 addresses is done using the IPv4 address and netmask of the interface on which capture is being done.   If
              that  address  or  netmask are not available, available, either because the interface on which capture is being done has no address or
              netmask or because the capture is being done on the Linux "any" interface, which can capture on more than one interface,  this  option
              will not work correctly.

       -F file
              Use file as input for the filter expression.  An additional expression given on the command line is ignored.

       -G rotate_seconds
              If specified, rotates the dump file specified with the -w option every rotate_seconds seconds.  Savefiles will have the name specified
              by -w which should include a time format as defined by strftime(3).  If no time format is specified, each new file will overwrite  the
              previous.

              If used in conjunction with the -C option, filenames will take the form of `file<count>'.

       -h
       --help Print the tcpdump and libpcap version strings, print a usage message, and exit.

       --version
              Print the tcpdump and libpcap version strings and exit.

       -H     Attempt to detect 802.11s draft mesh headers.

       -i interface
       --interface=interface
              Listen  on  interface.   If  unspecified,  tcpdump searches the system interface list for the lowest numbered, configured up interface
              (excluding loopback), which may turn out to be, for example, ``eth0''.

              On Linux systems with 2.2 or later kernels, an interface argument of ``any'' can be used to capture packets from all interfaces.  Note
              that captures on the ``any'' device will not be done in promiscuous mode.

              If the -D flag is supported, an interface number as printed by that flag can be used as the interface argument, if no interface on the
              system has that number as a name.

       -I
       --monitor-mode
              Put the interface in "monitor mode"; this is supported only on IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi interfaces, and supported only on some operating sys‐
              tems.

              Note  that in monitor mode the adapter might disassociate from the network with which it's associated, so that you will not be able to
              use any wireless networks with that adapter.  This could prevent accessing files on a network server, or resolving host names or  net‐
              work addresses, if you are capturing in monitor mode and are not connected to another network with another adapter.

              This  flag  will  affect  the output of the -L flag.  If -I isn't specified, only those link-layer types available when not in monitor
              mode will be shown; if -I is specified, only those link-layer types available when in monitor mode will be shown.

       --immediate-mode
              Capture in "immediate mode".  In this mode, packets are delivered to tcpdump as soon as they arrive, rather than  being  buffered  for
              efficiency.   This  is the default when printing packets rather than saving packets to a ``savefile'' if the packets are being printed
              to a terminal rather than to a file or pipe.

       -j tstamp_type
       --time-stamp-type=tstamp_type
              Set the time stamp type for the capture to tstamp_type.  The names to use for the time stamp types are given  in  pcap-tstamp(7);  not
              all the types listed there will necessarily be valid for any given interface.

       -J
       --list-time-stamp-types
              List the supported time stamp types for the interface and exit.  If the time stamp type cannot be set for the interface, no time stamp
              types are listed.

       --time-stamp-precision=tstamp_precision
              When capturing, set the time stamp precision for the capture to tstamp_precision.  Note  that  availability  of  high  precision  time
              stamps  (nanoseconds)  and  their  actual accuracy is platform and hardware dependent.  Also note that when writing captures made with
              nanosecond accuracy to a savefile, the time stamps are written with nanosecond resolution, and the file is written  with  a  different
              magic  number, to indicate that the time stamps are in seconds and nanoseconds; not all programs that read pcap savefiles will be able
              to read those captures.

       When reading a savefile, convert time stamps to the precision specified by timestamp_precision, and display them with  that  resolution.   If
       the precision specified is less than the precision of time stamps in the file, the conversion will lose precision.

       The  supported  values  for  timestamp_precision  are  micro  for  microsecond resolution and nano for nanosecond resolution.  The default is
       microsecond resolution.

       -K
       --dont-verify-checksums
              Don't attempt to verify IP, TCP, or UDP checksums.  This is useful for interfaces that perform some or all of those checksum  calcula‐
              tion in hardware; otherwise, all outgoing TCP checksums will be flagged as bad.

       -l     Make stdout line buffered.  Useful if you want to see the data while capturing it.  E.g.,

                     tcpdump -l | tee dat

              or

                     tcpdump -l > dat & tail -f dat

              Note  that  on  Windows,``line buffered'' means ``unbuffered'', so that WinDump will write each character individually if -l is speci‐
              fied.

              -U is similar to -l in its behavior, but it will cause output to be ``packet-buffered'', so that the output is written  to  stdout  at
              the end of each packet rather than at the end of each line; this is buffered on all platforms, including Windows.

       -L
       --list-data-link-types
              List the known data link types for the interface, in the specified mode, and exit.  The list of known data link types may be dependent
              on the specified mode; for example, on some platforms, a Wi-Fi interface might support one set of data link types when not in  monitor
              mode  (for  example,  it might support only fake Ethernet headers, or might support 802.11 headers but not support 802.11 headers with
              radio information) and another set of data link types when in monitor mode (for example, it might support 802.11  headers,  or  802.11
              headers with radio information, only in monitor mode).

       -m module
              Load SMI MIB module definitions from file module.  This option can be used several times to load several MIB modules into tcpdump.

       -M secret
              Use secret as a shared secret for validating the digests found in TCP segments with the TCP-MD5 option (RFC 2385), if present.

       -n     Don't convert host addresses to names.  This can be used to avoid DNS lookups.

       -nn    Don't convert protocol and port numbers etc. to names either.

       -N     Don't  print  domain  name  qualification  of  host  names.   E.g.,  if  you give this flag then tcpdump will print ``nic'' instead of
              ``nic.ddn.mil''.

       -#
       --number
              Print an optional packet number at the beginning of the line.

       -O
       --no-optimize
              Do not run the packet-matching code optimizer.  This is useful only if you suspect a bug in the optimizer.

       -p
       --no-promiscuous-mode
              Don't put the interface into promiscuous mode.  Note that the interface might be in promiscuous mode for  some  other  reason;  hence,
              `-p' cannot be used as an abbreviation for `ether host {local-hw-addr} or ether broadcast'.

       -Q|-P direction
       --direction=direction
              Choose  send/receive direction direction for which packets should be captured. Possible values are `in', `out' and `inout'. Not avail‐
              able on all platforms.

       -q     Quick (quiet?) output.  Print less protocol information so output lines are shorter.

       -r file
              Read packets from file (which was created with the -w option or by other tools that write pcap or pcap-ng files).  Standard  input  is
              used if file is ``-''.

       -S
       --absolute-tcp-sequence-numbers
              Print absolute, rather than relative, TCP sequence numbers.

       -s snaplen
       --snapshot-length=snaplen
              Snarf snaplen bytes of data from each packet rather than the default of 262144 bytes.  Packets truncated because of a limited snapshot
              are indicated in the output with ``[|proto]'', where proto is the name of the protocol level at which  the  truncation  has  occurred.
              Note that taking larger snapshots both increases the amount of time it takes to process packets and, effectively, decreases the amount
              of packet buffering.  This may cause packets to be lost.  You should limit snaplen to the smallest number that will capture the proto‐
              col  information you're interested in.  Setting snaplen to 0 sets it to the default of 262144, for backwards compatibility with recent
              older versions of tcpdump.

       -T type
              Force packets selected by "expression" to be interpreted the specified type.  Currently known types are aodv  (Ad-hoc  On-demand  Dis‐
              tance  Vector protocol), carp (Common Address Redundancy Protocol), cnfp (Cisco NetFlow protocol), lmp (Link Management Protocol), pgm
              (Pragmatic General Multicast), pgm_zmtp1 (ZMTP/1.0 inside PGM/EPGM), resp (REdis Serialization Protocol), radius (RADIUS), rpc (Remote
              Procedure  Call),  rtp (Real-Time Applications protocol), rtcp (Real-Time Applications control protocol), snmp (Simple Network Manage‐
              ment Protocol), tftp (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), vat (Visual Audio Tool), wb (distributed White Board),  zmtp1  (ZeroMQ  Message
              Transport Protocol 1.0) and vxlan (Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network).

              Note  that the pgm type above affects UDP interpretation only, the native PGM is always recognised as IP protocol 113 regardless. UDP-
              encapsulated PGM is often called "EPGM" or "PGM/UDP".

              Note that the pgm_zmtp1 type above affects interpretation of both native PGM and UDP at once.  During  the  native  PGM  decoding  the
              application  data  of  an  ODATA/RDATA  packet would be decoded as a ZeroMQ datagram with ZMTP/1.0 frames.  During the UDP decoding in
              addition to that any UDP packet would be treated as an encapsulated PGM packet.

       -t     Don't print a timestamp on each dump line.

       -tt    Print the timestamp, as seconds since January 1, 1970, 00:00:00, UTC, and fractions of a second since that time, on each dump line.

       -ttt   Print a delta (micro-second resolution) between current and previous line on each dump line.

       -tttt  Print a timestamp, as hours, minutes, seconds, and fractions of a second since midnight, preceded by the date, on each dump line.

       -ttttt Print a delta (micro-second resolution) between current and first line on each dump line.

       -u     Print undecoded NFS handles.

       -U
       --packet-buffered
              If the -w option is not specified, make the printed packet output ``packet-buffered''; i.e., as the description  of  the  contents  of
              each  packet  is  printed,  it will be written to the standard output, rather than, when not writing to a terminal, being written only
              when the output buffer fills.

              If the -w option is specified, make the saved raw packet output ``packet-buffered''; i.e., as each packet is saved, it will be written
              to the output file, rather than being written only when the output buffer fills.

              The -U flag will not be supported if tcpdump was built with an older version of libpcap that lacks the pcap_dump_flush() function.

       -v     When  parsing  and  printing, produce (slightly more) verbose output.  For example, the time to live, identification, total length and
              options in an IP packet are printed.  Also enables additional packet integrity checks such as verifying the IP and ICMP header  check‐
              sum.

              When writing to a file with the -w option, report, every 10 seconds, the number of packets captured.

       -vv    Even more verbose output.  For example, additional fields are printed from NFS reply packets, and SMB packets are fully decoded.

       -vvv   Even  more  verbose  output.  For example, telnet SB ... SE options are printed in full.  With -X Telnet options are printed in hex as
              well.

       -V file
              Read a list of filenames from file. Standard input is used if file is ``-''.

       -w file
              Write the raw packets to file rather than parsing and printing them out.  They can later be printed with the -r option.  Standard out‐
              put is used if file is ``-''.

              This output will be buffered if written to a file or pipe, so a program reading from the file or pipe may not see packets for an arbi‐
              trary amount of time after they are received.  Use the -U flag to cause packets to be written as soon as they are received.

              The MIME type application/vnd.tcpdump.pcap has been registered with IANA for pcap files. The filename extension .pcap  appears  to  be
              the most commonly used along with .cap and .dmp. Tcpdump itself doesn't check the extension when reading capture files and doesn't add
              an extension when writing them (it uses magic numbers in the file header instead). However, many operating  systems  and  applications
              will use the extension if it is present and adding one (e.g. .pcap) is recommended.

              See pcap-savefile(5) for a description of the file format.

       -W     Used  in  conjunction  with  the -C option, this will limit the number of files created to the specified number, and begin overwriting
              files from the beginning, thus creating a 'rotating' buffer.  In addition, it will name the files with enough leading  0s  to  support
              the maximum number of files, allowing them to sort correctly.

              Used  in conjunction with the -G option, this will limit the number of rotated dump files that get created, exiting with status 0 when
              reaching the limit. If used with -C as well, the behavior will result in cyclical files per timeslice.

       -x     When parsing and printing, in addition to printing the headers of each packet, print the data of each packet  (minus  its  link  level
              header)  in  hex.  The smaller of the entire packet or snaplen bytes will be printed.  Note that this is the entire link-layer packet,
              so for link layers that pad (e.g. Ethernet), the padding bytes will also be printed when the higher layer packet is shorter  than  the
              required padding.

       -xx    When parsing and printing, in addition to printing the headers of each packet, print the data of each packet, including its link level
              header, in hex.

       -X     When parsing and printing, in addition to printing the headers of each packet, print the data of each packet  (minus  its  link  level
              header) in hex and ASCII.  This is very handy for analysing new protocols.

       -XX    When parsing and printing, in addition to printing the headers of each packet, print the data of each packet, including its link level
              header, in hex and ASCII.

       -y datalinktype
       --linktype=datalinktype
              Set the data link type to use while capturing packets to datalinktype.

       -z postrotate-command
              Used in conjunction with the -C or -G options, this will make tcpdump run " postrotate-command file " where file is the savefile being
              closed after each rotation. For example, specifying -z gzip or -z bzip2 will compress each savefile using gzip or bzip2.

              Note  that tcpdump will run the command in parallel to the capture, using the lowest priority so that this doesn't disturb the capture
              process.

              And in case you would like to use a command that itself takes flags or different arguments, you can always write a shell  script  that
              will take the savefile name as the only argument, make the flags & arguments arrangements and execute the command that you want.

       -Z user
       --relinquish-privileges=user
              If tcpdump is running as root, after opening the capture device or input savefile, but before opening any savefiles for output, change
              the user ID to user and the group ID to the primary group of user.

              This behavior can also be enabled by default at compile time.

        expression
              selects which packets will be dumped.  If no expression is given, all packets on the net will be dumped.  Otherwise, only packets  for
              which expression is `true' will be dumped.

              For the expression syntax, see pcap-filter(7).

              The  expression argument can be passed to tcpdump as either a single Shell argument, or as multiple Shell arguments, whichever is more
              convenient.  Generally, if the expression contains Shell metacharacters, such as backslashes used to escape protocol names, it is eas‐
              ier  to pass it as a single, quoted argument rather than to escape the Shell metacharacters.  Multiple arguments are concatenated with
              spaces before being parsed.

EXAMPLES
       To print all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
              tcpdump host sundown

       To print traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
              tcpdump host helios and \( hot or ace \)

       To print all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
              tcpdump ip host ace and not helios

       To print all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
              tcpdump net ucb-ether

       To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup: (note that the expression is quoted to prevent the shell from (mis-)interpreting  the
       parentheses):
              tcpdump 'gateway snup and (port ftp or ftp-data)'

       To  print  traffic  neither  sourced from nor destined for local hosts (if you gateway to one other net, this stuff should never make it onto
       your local net).
              tcpdump ip and not net localnet

       To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP conversation that involves a non-local host.
              tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] & (tcp-syn|tcp-fin) != 0 and not src and dst net localnet'

       To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-
       only packets.  (IPv6 is left as an exercise for the reader.)
              tcpdump 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)'

       To print IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup:
              tcpdump 'gateway snup and ip[2:2] > 576'

       To print IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via Ethernet broadcast or multicast:
              tcpdump 'ether[0] & 1 = 0 and ip[16] >= 224'

       To print all ICMP packets that are not echo requests/replies (i.e., not ping packets):
              tcpdump 'icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echo and icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echoreply'

OUTPUT FORMAT
       The output of tcpdump is protocol dependent.  The following gives a brief description and examples of most of the formats.

       Timestamps

       By default, all output lines are preceded by a timestamp.  The timestamp is the current clock time in the form
              hh:mm:ss.frac
       and is as accurate as the kernel's clock.  The timestamp reflects the time the kernel applied a time stamp to the packet.  No attempt is made
       to account for the time lag between when the network interface finished receiving the packet from the network and when the kernel  applied  a
       time  stamp  to  the packet; that time lag could include a delay between the time when the network interface finished receiving a packet from
       the network and the time when an interrupt was delivered to the kernel to get it to read the packet and a delay between  the  time  when  the
       kernel serviced the `new packet' interrupt and the time when it applied a time stamp to the packet.

       Link Level Headers

       If  the '-e' option is given, the link level header is printed out.  On Ethernets, the source and destination addresses, protocol, and packet
       length are printed.

       On FDDI networks, the  '-e' option causes tcpdump to print the `frame control' field,  the source and destination addresses, and  the  packet
       length.   (The `frame control' field governs the interpretation of the rest of the packet.  Normal packets (such as those containing IP data‐
       grams) are `async' packets, with a priority value between 0 and 7; for example, `async4'.  Such packets are assumed to contain an 802.2 Logi‐
       cal Link Control (LLC) packet; the LLC header is printed if it is not an ISO datagram or a so-called SNAP packet.

       On  Token  Ring networks, the '-e' option causes tcpdump to print the `access control' and `frame control' fields, the source and destination
       addresses, and the packet length.  As on FDDI networks, packets are assumed to contain an LLC packet.  Regardless of whether the '-e'  option
       is specified or not, the source routing information is printed for source-routed packets.

       On  802.11  networks,  the '-e' option causes tcpdump to print the `frame control' fields, all of the addresses in the 802.11 header, and the
       packet length.  As on FDDI networks, packets are assumed to contain an LLC packet.

       (N.B.: The following description assumes familiarity with the SLIP compression algorithm described in RFC-1144.)

       On SLIP links, a direction indicator (``I'' for inbound, ``O'' for outbound), packet type, and compression information are printed out.   The
       packet type is printed first.  The three types are ip, utcp, and ctcp.  No further link information is printed for ip packets.  For TCP pack‐
       ets, the connection identifier is printed following the type.  If the packet is compressed, its encoded header is printed out.   The  special
       cases  are printed out as *S+n and *SA+n, where n is the amount by which the sequence number (or sequence number and ack) has changed.  If it
       is not a special case, zero or more changes are printed.  A change is indicated by U (urgent pointer), W (window), A (ack), S (sequence  num‐
       ber),  and  I  (packet  ID),  followed  by a delta (+n or -n), or a new value (=n).  Finally, the amount of data in the packet and compressed
       header length are printed.

       For example, the following line shows an outbound compressed TCP packet, with an implicit connection identifier; the ack has  changed  by  6,
       the sequence number by 49, and the packet ID by 6; there are 3 bytes of data and 6 bytes of compressed header:
              O ctcp * A+6 S+49 I+6 3 (6)

       ARP/RARP Packets

       Arp/rarp  output  shows  the type of request and its arguments.  The format is intended to be self explanatory.  Here is a short sample taken
       from the start of an `rlogin' from host rtsg to host csam:
              arp who-has csam tell rtsg
              arp reply csam is-at CSAM
       The first line says that rtsg sent an arp packet asking for the Ethernet address of internet host  csam.   Csam  replies  with  its  Ethernet
       address (in this example, Ethernet addresses are in caps and internet addresses in lower case).

       This would look less redundant if we had done tcpdump -n:
              arp who-has 128.3.254.6 tell 128.3.254.68
              arp reply 128.3.254.6 is-at 02:07:01:00:01:c4

       If we had done tcpdump -e, the fact that the first packet is broadcast and the second is point-to-point would be visible:
              RTSG Broadcast 0806  64: arp who-has csam tell rtsg
              CSAM RTSG 0806  64: arp reply csam is-at CSAM
       For  the  first  packet this says the Ethernet source address is RTSG, the destination is the Ethernet broadcast address, the type field con‐
       tained hex 0806 (type ETHER_ARP) and the total length was 64 bytes.

       IPv4 Packets

       If the link-layer header is not being printed, for IPv4 packets, IP is printed after the time stamp.

       If the -v flag is specified, information from the IPv4 header is shown in parentheses after the IP or the  link-layer  header.   The  general
       format of this information is:
              tos tos, ttl ttl, id id, offset offset, flags [flags], proto proto, length length, options (options)
       tos  is the type of service field; if the ECN bits are non-zero, those are reported as ECT(1), ECT(0), or CE.  ttl is the time-to-live; it is
       not reported if it is zero.  id is the IP identification field.  offset is the fragment offset field; it is printed whether this is part of a
       fragmented datagram or not.  flags are the MF and DF flags; + is reported if MF is set, and DFP is reported if F is set.  If neither are set,
       . is reported.  proto is the protocol ID field.  length is the total length field.  options are the IP options, if any.

       Next, for TCP and UDP packets, the source and destination IP addresses and TCP or UDP ports, with a dot between each IP address and its  cor‐
       responding port, will be printed, with a > separating the source and destination.  For other protocols, the addresses will be printed, with a
       > separating the source and destination.  Higher level protocol information, if any, will be printed after that.

       For fragmented IP datagrams, the first fragment contains the higher level protocol header; fragments after the first contain no higher  level
       protocol header.  Fragmentation information will be printed only with the -v flag, in the IP header information, as described above.

       TCP Packets

       (N.B.:The  following  description assumes familiarity with the TCP protocol described in RFC-793.  If you are not familiar with the protocol,
       this description will not be of much use to you.)

       The general format of a TCP protocol line is:
              src > dst: Flags [tcpflags], seq data-seqno, ack ackno, win window, urg urgent, options [opts], length len
       Src and dst are the source and destination IP addresses and ports.  Tcpflags are some combination of S (SYN), F (FIN), P (PUSH), R  (RST),  U
       (URG),  W (ECN CWR), E (ECN-Echo) or `.' (ACK), or `none' if no flags are set.  Data-seqno describes the portion of sequence space covered by
       the data in this packet (see example below).  Ackno is sequence number of the next data expected the  other  direction  on  this  connection.
       Window is the number of bytes of receive buffer space available the other direction on this connection.  Urg indicates there is `urgent' data
       in the packet.  Opts are TCP options (e.g., mss 1024).  Len is the length of payload data.

       Iptype, Src, dst, and flags are always present.  The other fields depend on the contents of the packet's TCP protocol header and  are  output
       only if appropriate.

       Here is the opening portion of an rlogin from host rtsg to host csam.
              IP rtsg.1023 > csam.login: Flags [S], seq 768512:768512, win 4096, opts [mss 1024]
              IP csam.login > rtsg.1023: Flags [S.], seq, 947648:947648, ack 768513, win 4096, opts [mss 1024]
              IP rtsg.1023 > csam.login: Flags [.], ack 1, win 4096
              IP rtsg.1023 > csam.login: Flags [P.], seq 1:2, ack 1, win 4096, length 1
              IP csam.login > rtsg.1023: Flags [.], ack 2, win 4096
              IP rtsg.1023 > csam.login: Flags [P.], seq 2:21, ack 1, win 4096, length 19
              IP csam.login > rtsg.1023: Flags [P.], seq 1:2, ack 21, win 4077, length 1
              IP csam.login > rtsg.1023: Flags [P.], seq 2:3, ack 21, win 4077, urg 1, length 1
              IP csam.login > rtsg.1023: Flags [P.], seq 3:4, ack 21, win 4077, urg 1, length 1
       The  first  line says that TCP port 1023 on rtsg sent a packet to port login on csam.  The S indicates that the SYN flag was set.  The packet
       sequence number was 768512 and it contained no data.  (The notation is `first:last' which means `sequence numbers first up to but not includ‐
       ing  last.)  There was no piggy-backed ack, the available receive window was 4096 bytes and there was a max-segment-size option requesting an
       mss of 1024 bytes.

       Csam replies with a similar packet except it includes a piggy-backed ack for rtsg's SYN.  Rtsg then acks csam's SYN.  The `.' means  the  ACK
       flag  was  set.   The  packet  contained no data so there is no data sequence number or length.  Note that the ack sequence number is a small
       integer (1).  The first time tcpdump sees a TCP `conversation', it prints the sequence number from the packet.  On subsequent packets of  the
       conversation,  the  difference  between  the  current  packet's sequence number and this initial sequence number is printed.  This means that
       sequence numbers after the first can be interpreted as relative byte positions in the conversation's data stream (with the  first  data  byte
       each direction being `1').  `-S' will override this feature, causing the original sequence numbers to be output.

       On  the 6th line, rtsg sends csam 19 bytes of data (bytes 2 through 20 in the rtsg → csam side of the conversation).  The PUSH flag is set in
       the packet.  On the 7th line, csam says it's received data sent by rtsg up to but not including byte 21.  Most of  this  data  is  apparently
       sitting  in  the  socket  buffer  since  csam's receive window has gotten 19 bytes smaller.  Csam also sends one byte of data to rtsg in this
       packet.  On the 8th and 9th lines, csam sends two bytes of urgent, pushed data to rtsg.

       If the snapshot was small enough that tcpdump didn't capture the full TCP header, it interprets as much of the header  as  it  can  and  then
       reports  ``[|tcp]''  to  indicate  the  remainder  could not be interpreted.  If the header contains a bogus option (one with a length that's
       either too small or beyond the end of the header), tcpdump reports it as ``[bad opt]'' and does not interpret any further options (since it's
       impossible  to  tell where they start).  If the header length indicates options are present but the IP datagram length is not long enough for
       the options to actually be there, tcpdump reports it as ``[bad hdr length]''.

       Capturing TCP packets with particular flag combinations (SYN-ACK, URG-ACK, etc.)

       There are 8 bits in the control bits section of the TCP header:

              CWR | ECE | URG | ACK | PSH | RST | SYN | FIN

       Let's assume that we want to watch packets used in establishing a TCP connection.  Recall that TCP uses a 3-way handshake  protocol  when  it
       initializes a new connection; the connection sequence with regard to the TCP control bits is

              1) Caller sends SYN
              2) Recipient responds with SYN, ACK
              3) Caller sends ACK

       Now  we're  interested  in capturing packets that have only the SYN bit set (Step 1).  Note that we don't want packets from step 2 (SYN-ACK),
       just a plain initial SYN.  What we need is a correct filter expression for tcpdump.

       Recall the structure of a TCP header without options:

        0                            15                              31
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |          source port          |       destination port        |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |                        sequence number                        |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |                     acknowledgment number                     |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |  HL   | rsvd  |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|        window size            |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------
       |         TCP checksum          |       urgent pointer          |
       -----------------------------------------------------------------

       A TCP header usually holds 20 octets of data, unless options are present.  The first line of the graph contains octets 0 - 3, the second line
       shows octets 4 - 7 etc.

       Starting to count with 0, the relevant TCP control bits are contained in octet 13:

        0             7|             15|             23|             31
       ----------------|---------------|---------------|----------------
       |  HL   | rsvd  |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|        window size            |
       ----------------|---------------|---------------|----------------
       |               |  13th octet   |               |               |

       Let's have a closer look at octet no. 13:

                       |               |
                       |---------------|
                       |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|
                       |---------------|
                       |7   5   3     0|

       These  are  the TCP control bits we are interested in.  We have numbered the bits in this octet from 0 to 7, right to left, so the PSH bit is
       bit number 3, while the URG bit is number 5.

       Recall that we want to capture packets with only SYN set.  Let's see what happens to octet 13 if a TCP datagram arrives with the SYN bit  set
       in its header:

                       |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|
                       |---------------|
                       |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
                       |---------------|
                       |7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0|

       Looking at the control bits section we see that only bit number 1 (SYN) is set.

       Assuming that octet number 13 is an 8-bit unsigned integer in network byte order, the binary value of this octet is

              00000010

       and its decimal representation is

          7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
       0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 1*2 + 0*2  =  2

       We're  almost  done,  because now we know that if only SYN is set, the value of the 13th octet in the TCP header, when interpreted as a 8-bit
       unsigned integer in network byte order, must be exactly 2.

       This relationship can be expressed as
              tcp[13] == 2

       We can use this expression as the filter for tcpdump in order to watch packets which have only SYN set:
              tcpdump -i xl0 tcp[13] == 2

       The expression says "let the 13th octet of a TCP datagram have the decimal value 2", which is exactly what we want.

       Now, let's assume that we need to capture SYN packets, but we don't care if ACK or any other TCP control bit is set at the same time.   Let's
       see what happens to octet 13 when a TCP datagram with SYN-ACK set arrives:

            |C|E|U|A|P|R|S|F|
            |---------------|
            |0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0|
            |---------------|
            |7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0|

       Now bits 1 and 4 are set in the 13th octet.  The binary value of octet 13 is

                   00010010

       which translates to decimal

          7     6     5     4     3     2     1     0
       0*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 1*2 + 0*2 + 0*2 + 1*2 + 0*2   = 18

       Now  we  can't just use 'tcp[13] == 18' in the tcpdump filter expression, because that would select only those packets that have SYN-ACK set,
       but not those with only SYN set.  Remember that we don't care if ACK or any other control bit is set as long as SYN is set.

       In order to achieve our goal, we need to logically AND the binary value of octet 13 with some other value to preserve the SYN bit.   We  know
       that we want SYN to be set in any case, so we'll logically AND the value in the 13th octet with the binary value of a SYN:

                 00010010 SYN-ACK              00000010 SYN
            AND  00000010 (we want SYN)   AND  00000010 (we want SYN)
                 --------                      --------
            =    00000010                 =    00000010

       We see that this AND operation delivers the same result regardless whether ACK or another TCP control bit is set.  The decimal representation
       of the AND value as well as the result of this operation is 2 (binary 00000010), so we know that for packets with SYN set the following rela‐
       tion must hold true:

              ( ( value of octet 13 ) AND ( 2 ) ) == ( 2 )

       This points us to the tcpdump filter expression
                   tcpdump -i xl0 'tcp[13] & 2 == 2'

       Some  offsets  and  field  values  may  be  expressed  as  names  rather  than  as  numeric  values. For example tcp[13] may be replaced with
       tcp[tcpflags]. The following TCP flag field values are also available: tcp-fin, tcp-syn, tcp-rst, tcp-push, tcp-act, tcp-urg.

       This can be demonstrated as:
                   tcpdump -i xl0 'tcp[tcpflags] & tcp-push != 0'

       Note that you should use single quotes or a backslash in the expression to hide the AND ('&') special character from the shell.

       UDP Packets

       UDP format is illustrated by this rwho packet:
              actinide.who > broadcast.who: udp 84
       This says that port who on host actinide sent a udp datagram to port who on host broadcast, the Internet broadcast address.  The packet  con‐
       tained 84 bytes of user data.

       Some UDP services are recognized (from the source or destination port number) and the higher level protocol information printed.  In particu‐
       lar, Domain Name service requests (RFC-1034/1035) and Sun RPC calls (RFC-1050) to NFS.

       UDP Name Server Requests

       (N.B.:The following description assumes familiarity with the Domain Service protocol described in RFC-1035.  If you are not familiar with the
       protocol, the following description will appear to be written in greek.)

       Name server requests are formatted as
              src > dst: id op? flags qtype qclass name (len)
              h2opolo.1538 > helios.domain: 3+ A? ucbvax.berkeley.edu. (37)
       Host  h2opolo  asked  the domain server on helios for an address record (qtype=A) associated with the name ucbvax.berkeley.edu.  The query id
       was `3'.  The `+' indicates the recursion desired flag was set.  The query length was 37 bytes, not including the UDP and IP  protocol  head‐
       ers.   The  query  operation  was  the  normal one, Query, so the op field was omitted.  If the op had been anything else, it would have been
       printed between the `3' and the `+'.  Similarly, the qclass was the normal one, C_IN, and omitted.  Any other qclass would have been  printed
       immediately after the `A'.

       A  few anomalies are checked and may result in extra fields enclosed in square brackets:  If a query contains an answer, authority records or
       additional records section, ancount, nscount, or arcount are printed as `[na]', `[nn]' or  `[nau]' where n is the appropriate count.  If  any
       of the response bits are set (AA, RA or rcode) or any of the `must be zero' bits are set in bytes two and three, `[b2&3=x]' is printed, where
       x is the hex value of header bytes two and three.

       UDP Name Server Responses

       Name server responses are formatted as
              src > dst:  id op rcode flags a/n/au type class data (len)
              helios.domain > h2opolo.1538: 3 3/3/7 A 128.32.137.3 (273)
              helios.domain > h2opolo.1537: 2 NXDomain* 0/1/0 (97)
       In the first example, helios responds to query id 3 from h2opolo with 3 answer records, 3 name server records and 7 additional records.   The
       first answer record is type A (address) and its data is internet address 128.32.137.3.  The total size of the response was 273 bytes, exclud‐
       ing UDP and IP headers.  The op (Query) and response code (NoError) were omitted, as was the class (C_IN) of the A record.

       In the second example, helios responds to query 2 with a response code of non-existent domain (NXDomain) with no answers, one name server and
       no authority records.  The `*' indicates that the authoritative answer bit was set.  Since there were no answers, no type, class or data were
       printed.

       Other flag characters that might appear are `-' (recursion available, RA, not set) and `|' (truncated message, TC, set).  If  the  `question'
       section doesn't contain exactly one entry, `[nq]' is printed.

       SMB/CIFS decoding

       tcpdump  now  includes  fairly  extensive SMB/CIFS/NBT decoding for data on UDP/137, UDP/138 and TCP/139.  Some primitive decoding of IPX and
       NetBEUI SMB data is also done.

       By default a fairly minimal decode is done, with a much more detailed decode done if -v is used.  Be warned that with -v a single SMB  packet
       may take up a page or more, so only use -v if you really want all the gory details.

       For  information  on  SMB  packet  formats  and  what all the fields mean see www.cifs.org or the pub/samba/specs/ directory on your favorite
       samba.org mirror site.  The SMB patches were written by Andrew Tridgell (tridge@samba.org).

       NFS Requests and Replies

       Sun NFS (Network File System) requests and replies are printed as:
              src.sport > dst.nfs: NFS request xid xid len op args
              src.nfs > dst.dport: NFS reply xid xid reply stat len op results
              sushi.1023 > wrl.nfs: NFS request xid 26377
                   112 readlink fh 21,24/10.73165
              wrl.nfs > sushi.1023: NFS reply xid 26377
                   reply ok 40 readlink "../var"
              sushi.1022 > wrl.nfs: NFS request xid 8219
                   144 lookup fh 9,74/4096.6878 "xcolors"
              wrl.nfs > sushi.1022: NFS reply xid 8219
                   reply ok 128 lookup fh 9,74/4134.3150
       In the first line, host sushi sends a transaction with id 26377 to wrl.  The request was 112 bytes, excluding the UDP and  IP  headers.   The
       operation was a readlink (read symbolic link) on file handle (fh) 21,24/10.731657119.  (If one is lucky, as in this case, the file handle can
       be interpreted as a major,minor device number pair, followed by the inode number and generation number.) In the second line, wrl replies `ok'
       with the same transaction id and the contents of the link.

       In  the  third line, sushi asks (using a new transaction id) wrl to lookup the name `xcolors' in directory file 9,74/4096.6878. In the fourth
       line, wrl sends a reply with the respective transaction id.

       Note that the data printed depends on the operation type.  The format is intended to be self explanatory if read in conjunction with  an  NFS
       protocol  spec.   Also note that older versions of tcpdump printed NFS packets in a slightly different format: the transaction id (xid) would
       be printed instead of the non-NFS port number of the packet.

       If the -v (verbose) flag is given, additional information is printed.  For example:
              sushi.1023 > wrl.nfs: NFS request xid 79658
                   148 read fh 21,11/12.195 8192 bytes @ 24576
              wrl.nfs > sushi.1023: NFS reply xid 79658
                   reply ok 1472 read REG 100664 ids 417/0 sz 29388
       (-v also prints the IP header TTL, ID, length, and fragmentation fields, which have been omitted from this  example.)   In  the  first  line,
       sushi asks wrl to read 8192 bytes from file 21,11/12.195, at byte offset 24576.  Wrl replies `ok'; the packet shown on the second line is the
       first fragment of the reply, and hence is only 1472 bytes long (the other bytes will follow in subsequent fragments, but these  fragments  do
       not  have  NFS or even UDP headers and so might not be printed, depending on the filter expression used).  Because the -v flag is given, some
       of the file attributes (which are returned in addition to the file data) are printed: the file type (``REG'', for  regular  file),  the  file
       mode (in octal), the uid and gid, and the file size.

       If the -v flag is given more than once, even more details are printed.

       Note  that  NFS requests are very large and much of the detail won't be printed unless snaplen is increased.  Try using `-s 192' to watch NFS
       traffic.

       NFS reply packets do not explicitly identify the RPC operation.  Instead, tcpdump keeps track of ``recent'' requests, and matches them to the
       replies using the transaction ID.  If a reply does not closely follow the corresponding request, it might not be parsable.

       AFS Requests and Replies

       Transarc AFS (Andrew File System) requests and replies are printed as:

              src.sport > dst.dport: rx packet-type
              src.sport > dst.dport: rx packet-type service call call-name args
              src.sport > dst.dport: rx packet-type service reply call-name args
              elvis.7001 > pike.afsfs:
                   rx data fs call rename old fid 536876964/1/1 ".newsrc.new"
                   new fid 536876964/1/1 ".newsrc"
              pike.afsfs > elvis.7001: rx data fs reply rename
       In  the  first  line, host elvis sends a RX packet to pike.  This was a RX data packet to the fs (fileserver) service, and is the start of an
       RPC call.  The RPC call was a rename, with the old directory file id of 536876964/1/1 and an old filename of `.newsrc.new', and a new  direc‐
       tory  file  id  of 536876964/1/1 and a new filename of `.newsrc'.  The host pike responds with a RPC reply to the rename call (which was suc‐
       cessful, because it was a data packet and not an abort packet).

       In general, all AFS RPCs are decoded at least by RPC call name.  Most AFS RPCs have at least some of the arguments  decoded  (generally  only
       the `interesting' arguments, for some definition of interesting).

       The  format is intended to be self-describing, but it will probably not be useful to people who are not familiar with the workings of AFS and
       RX.

       If the -v (verbose) flag is given twice, acknowledgement packets and additional header information is printed, such as the RX call  ID,  call
       number, sequence number, serial number, and the RX packet flags.

       If  the  -v  flag is given twice, additional information is printed, such as the RX call ID, serial number, and the RX packet flags.  The MTU
       negotiation information is also printed from RX ack packets.

       If the -v flag is given three times, the security index and service id are printed.

       Error codes are printed for abort packets, with the exception of Ubik beacon packets (because abort packets are used to signify  a  yes  vote
       for the Ubik protocol).

       Note  that  AFS  requests are very large and many of the arguments won't be printed unless snaplen is increased.  Try using `-s 256' to watch
       AFS traffic.

       AFS reply packets do not explicitly identify the RPC operation.  Instead, tcpdump keeps track of ``recent'' requests, and matches them to the
       replies using the call number and service ID.  If a reply does not closely follow the corresponding request, it might not be parsable.


       KIP AppleTalk (DDP in UDP)

       AppleTalk  DDP  packets  encapsulated in UDP datagrams are de-encapsulated and dumped as DDP packets (i.e., all the UDP header information is
       discarded).  The file /etc/atalk.names is used to translate AppleTalk net and node numbers to names.  Lines in this file have the form
              number    name

              1.254          ether
              16.1      icsd-net
              1.254.110 ace
       The first two lines give the names of AppleTalk networks.  The third line gives the name of a particular host (a host is distinguished from a
       net by the 3rd octet in the number - a net number must have two octets and a host number must have three octets.)  The number and name should
       be separated by whitespace (blanks or tabs).  The /etc/atalk.names file may contain blank lines or comment lines (lines starting with a `#').

       AppleTalk addresses are printed in the form
              net.host.port

              144.1.209.2 > icsd-net.112.220
              office.2 > icsd-net.112.220
              jssmag.149.235 > icsd-net.2
       (If the /etc/atalk.names doesn't exist or doesn't contain an entry for some AppleTalk host/net  number,  addresses  are  printed  in  numeric
       form.)   In  the  first example, NBP (DDP port 2) on net 144.1 node 209 is sending to whatever is listening on port 220 of net icsd node 112.
       The second line is the same except the full name of the source node is known (`office').  The third line is a send from port 235 on net  jss‐
       mag  node  149  to broadcast on the icsd-net NBP port (note that the broadcast address (255) is indicated by a net name with no host number -
       for this reason it's a good idea to keep node names and net names distinct in /etc/atalk.names).

       NBP (name binding protocol) and ATP (AppleTalk transaction protocol) packets have their contents interpreted.  Other protocols just dump  the
       protocol name (or number if no name is registered for the protocol) and packet size.

       NBP packets are formatted like the following examples:
              icsd-net.112.220 > jssmag.2: nbp-lkup 190: "=:LaserWriter@*"
              jssmag.209.2 > icsd-net.112.220: nbp-reply 190: "RM1140:LaserWriter@*" 250
              techpit.2 > icsd-net.112.220: nbp-reply 190: "techpit:LaserWriter@*" 186
       The first line is a name lookup request for laserwriters sent by net icsd host 112 and broadcast on net jssmag.  The nbp id for the lookup is
       190.  The second line shows a reply for this request (note that it has the same id) from host jssmag.209 saying that  it  has  a  laserwriter
       resource  named  "RM1140"  registered  on  port 250.  The third line is another reply to the same request saying host techpit has laserwriter
       "techpit" registered on port 186.

       ATP packet formatting is demonstrated by the following example:
              jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-req  12266<0-7> 0xae030001
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:0 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:1 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:2 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:3 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:4 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:5 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:6 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp*12266:7 (512) 0xae040000
              jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-req  12266<3,5> 0xae030001
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:3 (512) 0xae040000
              helios.132 > jssmag.209.165: atp-resp 12266:5 (512) 0xae040000
              jssmag.209.165 > helios.132: atp-rel  12266<0-7> 0xae030001
              jssmag.209.133 > helios.132: atp-req* 12267<0-7> 0xae030002
       Jssmag.209 initiates transaction id 12266 with host helios by requesting up to 8 packets (the `<0-7>').  The hex number at  the  end  of  the
       line is the value of the `userdata' field in the request.

       Helios  responds  with 8 512-byte packets.  The `:digit' following the transaction id gives the packet sequence number in the transaction and
       the number in parens is the amount of data in the packet, excluding the atp header.  The `*' on packet 7 indicates that the EOM bit was set.

       Jssmag.209 then requests that packets 3 & 5 be retransmitted.  Helios resends them then jssmag.209 releases the transaction.   Finally,  jss‐
       mag.209 initiates the next request.  The `*' on the request indicates that XO (`exactly once') was not set.


SEE ALSO
       stty(1), pcap(3PCAP), bpf(4), nit(4P), pcap-savefile(5), pcap-filter(7), pcap-tstamp(7)

              http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/application/vnd.tcpdump.pcap

AUTHORS
       The original authors are:

       Van Jacobson, Craig Leres and Steven McCanne, all of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

       It is currently being maintained by tcpdump.org.

       The current version is available via http:

              http://www.tcpdump.org/

       The original distribution is available via anonymous ftp:

              ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/old/tcpdump.tar.Z

       IPv6/IPsec support is added by WIDE/KAME project.  This program uses Eric Young's SSLeay library, under specific configurations.

BUGS
       To report a security issue please send an e-mail to security@tcpdump.org.

       To  report  bugs  and other problems, contribute patches, request a feature, provide generic feedback etc please see the file CONTRIBUTING in
       the tcpdump source tree root.

       NIT doesn't let you watch your own outbound traffic, BPF will.  We recommend that you use the latter.

       On Linux systems with 2.0[.x] kernels:

              packets on the loopback device will be seen twice;

              packet filtering cannot be done in the kernel, so that all packets must be copied from the kernel in order  to  be  filtered  in  user
              mode;

              all of a packet, not just the part that's within the snapshot length, will be copied from the kernel (the 2.0[.x] packet capture mech‐
              anism, if asked to copy only part of a packet to userland, will not report the true length of the packet; this  would  cause  most  IP
              packets to get an error from tcpdump);

              capturing on some PPP devices won't work correctly.

       We recommend that you upgrade to a 2.2 or later kernel.

       Some attempt should be made to reassemble IP fragments or, at least to compute the right length for the higher level protocol.

       Name  server  inverse queries are not dumped correctly: the (empty) question section is printed rather than real query in the answer section.
       Some believe that inverse queries are themselves a bug and prefer to fix the program generating them rather than tcpdump.

       A packet trace that crosses a daylight savings time change will give skewed time stamps (the time change is ignored).

       Filter expressions on fields other than those in Token Ring headers will not correctly handle source-routed Token Ring packets.

       Filter expressions on fields other than those in 802.11 headers will not correctly handle 802.11 data packets with both To  DS  and  From  DS
       set.

       ip6 proto should chase header chain, but at this moment it does not.  ip6 protochain is supplied for this behavior.

       Arithmetic expression against transport layer headers, like tcp[0], does not work against IPv6 packets.  It only looks at IPv4 packets.



                                                                   2 February 2017                                                        TCPDUMP(8)

にほんブログ村 IT技術ブログへ
にほんブログ村


コメント